“DIM”, (3,3’ -diindolylmethane), is one of numerous metabolites formed when stomach acids break down indole 3 carbinol (“I3C”), a substance present in cruciferous vegetables. Although the formation of DIM from I3C is quite predictable, it is not certain which or how much of other metabolites’ actions may be in the colon . Some of the I3C metabolites such as ICZ, a dioxin-like double molecule may be undesirable.
DIM influences detoxification enzymes such as aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase. Investigators identified that the inactivation of Akt and NF-kappaB activity also plays important roles in DIM-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Researchers studying androgen-dependent human prostate cancer cells found that DIM exhibits potent antiproliferative and antiandrogenic properties. They concluded, “DIM suppresses cell proliferation of LNCaP cells and inhibits dihydrotestosterone (DHT) stimulation of DNA synthesis". Researchers who cells transplanted human breast carcinoma into athymic mice witnessed DIM’s ability to inhibit angiogenisis and growth. In this study tumor growth was reduced because DIM caused G1 cell cycle arrest, down-regulated expression of cyclindependent kinase 2 and 6 (CDK2, CDK6), and upregulated expression of CDK inhibitor, p27 (Kipl). DIM may act as a potent anti-oxidant that destroys free radicals. A study demonstrated the binding competition DIM exhibits against Dioxin. Supplementing DIM has been shown to promote the formation of the healthy 2-OH-esterone, thus improving the ratio of 2 OH:16 OH estrogen.